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Is the Commission aware of this report? Assessing the impacts of planting 72 Mha of short rotation coppice poplar, willow or eucalyptus on ozone pollution and its effects on human health and crop yields, the study suggests that not only greenhouse gas emissions should be the criteria when policies concerning biofuels are developed. The Commission assesses a range of impacts when it develops policy initiatives, including for biofuels.

However, the Commission's analyses have not considered the impacts suggested by the above study, and the Commission cannot confirm their validity or relevance. What will it do to address the fact that the recession in Europe is predicted to last until ? Taking swift and ambitious action on both EU and national level along these lines will contribute to mitigating negative short term economic developments while laying the foundations for a return to sustainable growth and jobs creation.

The ECB has expressed concerns about the crisis in Cyprus and possible contagion in the euro area, especially at a time when Ireland and Portugal are trying to return to the markets. The Commission is aware of the decisions of some EU banks to repay partially the amounts allotted in the longer-term refinancing operations LTRO. However, an important part of the liquidity injected through the 3-year LTROs will still remain in the banking system. In addition, returning some excess liquidity may be actually a signal of the return of confidence in EU banks.

Such signs may allow banks to consider transferring the costly liquidity buffers they still hold towards lending to the economy. The Commission is also concerned about recessionary risks in Europe. To address concerns about dysfunctions in the credit flow towards the economy, the Commission has recently tabled proposals for a Banking Union to strengthen the financial institutional framework in Europe.

Confidence in the banking system is a pre-requisite for a continuous flow of bank lending towards the economy. Is it possible to lengthen the maturity of loans from the Troika to the bailed-out countries? Does the Commission believe that lengthening the maturity of loans would foster economic growth in these countries? A number of legal, technical and financial issues have to examined in this context.

The eventual decision whether and, if yes, in which format to lengthen the maturities of loans is in the hands of the Council and of the euro area Member States. The extension of IMF loans is not considered. The extension of EU loan maturities in an appropriate format could help Portugal and Ireland to ease market access. It could also have an indirect effect on economic growth. The low-cost loans would be outstanding for longer, so Portugal's implicit interest rate and respectively interest expenditure during the years of extension would be lower assuming that private investors would continue charging higher interest rate.

The State could use savings in interest expenditure for investment or public consumption, possibly generating growth. Economic adjustment programmes for Ireland and Portugal include several specific measures, in particular in the structural field, that explicitly target the reinvigoration of economic growth in these countries. What can the Commission do to combat the high level of business insolvency in Portugal?

Does the Commission share the view that excessive austerity has led to an increase in cases of insolvency? It is also facilitating access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs. The Commission is working with Member States to set out a comprehensive system of financial policies and instruments to support SME financing.

Combining fiscal consolidation with growth enhancing instruments is the only way forward to put Portugal back on the path of sustainable growth. The reforms underway are laying the ground for a dynamic and competitive economy required to ensure the long-term solvency and viability of Portuguese companies. These reforms include a revision of the corporate insolvency and recovery law to better support early rescue of viable firms and new fast track in-court mechanisms and out-of-court corporate debt restructuring and recovery mechanisms SIREVE, PER were put in place to help the recovery of companies in financial difficulties and to prevent further bankruptcies.

How, and by whom, will the use of this funding for its proposed objectives be accounted for? Exactly how much will Portugal receive under the economic and financial adjustment programme agreed with the Troika? The data and explanations received from the lenders were presented in the original report. This amount is relevant from the lenders' perspective as it defines the amount of EFSF guarantees to be provided by guarantor MS.

This amount is relevant from the cash management perspective of the beneficiary country. Nun aber scheint das Projekt wieder Fahrt aufnehmen. Daraus ergibt sich folgende Frage:. Sei es hinsichtlich des Zugriffs auf Bankdaten, oder auf Daten in sogenannten Clouds. Wie gedenkt die Kommission hier vorzugehen? Bei der umfassenden Datenschutzreform wurde diesen Bedenken Rechnung getragen. However, the project now seems to be gathering momentum again.

In many respects, however, the USA and Europe have very different approaches to important issues of economic and social policy. There is also the subpoena procedure, whereby US authorities can force businesses to release data, and in which the protection of EU citizens is not clearly regulated. The US administration is also evidently keen to access Twitter profiles and similar data. Given that the use of the Internet plays a key role in an increasing number of areas of daily life, and that frequently several undertakings are involved in providing a given service, in a transatlantic internal market it would become even harder to guarantee European data protection standards.

What measures does the Commission propose to take in this area? The Commission is aware of the concerns related to the extraterritorial application of laws of third countries regulating data processing activities that fall under the jurisdiction of Member States. These laws may be in breach of international law and affect the fundamental rights of individuals in the Union. These concerns have been taken into account in the comprehensive reform package of data protection rules.

The proposed Regulation also makes clear that data transfers should only be allowed where the conditions of the regulation for an international transfer are met. Grundlegende Rechtsvorschriften zum Verbraucherschutz stehen nicht zur Debatte. While Europeans are extremely sceptical about genetically modified foods and feedstuffs, in the USA there are not even GMO warnings on food packaging.

The same is true of factory farming and the use of antibiotics see the WTO dispute on hormone-treated beef. How does the Commission propose, in a common single market with the USA, to protect European standards and values in food production? Any future negotiations of an EU-US trade and investment agreement would not be about compromising the health of European consumers for commercial gain. Basic legislation protecting consumers will not be up for negotiation. The Commission will continue to do its outmost to guarantee the protection of European standards and value in food production by means of the tools provided for by the relevant EU legislation, i.

What the Commission hopes to achieve is to minimise trade barriers resulting from the operation of our systems and create new opportunities for jobs and growth. In the USA there is a long and important tradition of lobbying.

Whereas in Brussels lobbying is traditionally geared to consensus, in the USA it is carried out in a very aggressive and extremely professional manner. While lobbying practices are widely accepted among the American public, European citizens are much more sceptical about them. Although they have increased perceptibly in recent years, lobbying activities in Brussels are not as pronounced as on the other side of the Atlantic.

In a transatlantic single market, how does the Commission propose to prevent lobbyists having an excessive influence on the common rules of the single market? The Commission considers that the best way to avoid an excessive or unbalanced influence on policy making from particular interests is to ensure that during the process, the widest opportunity is given to all stakeholders to channel their views so that all interests can be heard.

Trainings on professional ethics are provided to Commission staff on taking up their post and on a regular basis during their careers to raise awareness about their obligations of independence, impartiality and objectivity. In addition, specific training on standards and guidance on consultations to be followed in practice are also offered to the staff. In its annual programme of work for the Commission announces the adoption of framework provisions for the assessment of environmental, climate and energy issues so as to facilitate the safe and secure extraction of non-conventional hydrocarbons but fails to specify whether they will be legislative or non-legislative.

When are the framework provisions scheduled for adoption and what legal form will they take? If so, does it intend to introduce new rules relating exclusively to the extraction of shale gas, bearing in mind that Member States have a free choice regarding their energy mix? Los efectos de estos plaguicidas se investigaron en colonias de abejas. Kann die Kommission in Zusammenhang mit der Empfehlung alternativer Anwendungen sicherstellen, dass den Landwirten auch in Zukunft Wahlfreiheit in Bezug auf gentechnikfreien Anbau garantiert bleibt?

Nel corso dello studio sono stati esaminati gli effetti di tali sostanze sulle colonie di api. Sulla base di tali informazioni, la Commissione ha avviato immediatamente un dibattito circa il divieto di queste sostanze. Come valuta la Commissione le lacune presenti nei dati forniti, in ragione delle quali gli studi dell'EFSA non risultano rappresentativi per tutta l'Unione europea? Si tiene conto del fatto che nel corso di questa valutazione non sono stati considerati gli studi scientifici precedentemente conclusi relativi all'esame di queste sostanze, corredati da risultati concreti e proposte di azione?

In alcuni Stati membri il settore dell'apicoltura e quello agricolo hanno intrapreso una stretta collaborazione, attuando misure che hanno condotto a chiari risultati. La mancanza di dati messa in luce dall'EFSA solleva preoccupazioni nella misura in cui evidenzia diversi fattori di incertezza in certi ambiti della valutazione del rischio che non consentono di concludere che il rischio sia basso.

Coerentemente con la richiesta della Commissione l'EFSA ha tenuto conto di tutti gli studi disponibili precedentemente valutati a livello nazionale a sostegno delle autorizzazioni esistenti di prodotti fitosanitari. Gli agricoltori possono coltivare colture GM, ad esempio colture GM resistenti agli insetti, a patto che queste abbiano ricevuto un'autorizzazione alla commercializzazione UE previa attenta valutazione del rischio che dimostri che essi non hanno effetti nocivi per la salute umana e animale e per l'ambiente.

La legislazione sugli OGM stabilisce che gli Stati membri possono implementare misure specifiche per assicurare la coesistenza di colture GM, convenzionali e biologiche sul loro territorio. The effects of these on bee populations have been established and the results obtained identified a number of risks for bees.

In some cases the risk assessment could not be completed, owing to a lack of data and because of time pressure. In response, the Commission raised the question of a ban on these active substances. The wide-ranging economic and environmental impact of such a decision gives rise to the following questions:. Is account being taken of the fact that earlier, completed scientific studies concerned with evaluating active substances and which contain specific results and recommendations for action were not included in this assessment?

Measures have been taken in some Member States with close cooperation between beekeepers and the agricultural sector which have produced clear results. Have these been taken into account? In many Member States the incidence of invasive pests such as Diabrotica virgifera Western corn rootworm is causing an increasing number of failed harvests. Will there be an assessment and a recommendation for alternative methods in the fight against harmful insects? With regard to recommending alternative methods, can the Commission ensure that farmers will continue to be able to exercise free choice in the matter of GMO crops?

The assessment done by the European Food Safety Authority EFSA represents the best state-of-the-art scientific assessment currently possible with the available experimental data. The data gaps highlighted by EFSA raise a concern insofar as they highlight numerous uncertainty factors in certain areas of the risk assessment, which do not allow concluding on a low risk.

Consistently with the request of the Commission, EFSA took into account all available studies previously evaluated at national level in support of existing authorisations on plant protection products. The Commission is not aware of any missing information that should have been integrated in the assessment. A wide call for data was launched and all submitted data, studies and information were considered in the assessment.

The Commission is aware of the importance of alternative solutions such as crop rotation, in case certain uses of neonicotinoids would not be available in the future. Farmers can grow GMO crops — e. The GMO legislation provides that Member States can implement specific measures for ensuring the coexistence of GM, conventional and organic crops cultivations on their territory.

Oggetto: Disoccupazione giovanile in aumento nell'area dell'euro. Nell'ambito del Semestre europeo vengono anche promosse riforme strutturali per affrontare la segregazione del mercato del lavoro e ridurre la disoccupazione giovanile. In the light of the above, can the Commission say how it thinks these policies concerning the reduction of youth unemployment in the euro area can be implemented in relation to the proposed cuts to the latest European budget? Nevertheless, the European Council also recognised that the emphasis put by the Commission on the critical need to address youth unemployment was right.

Through the European Semester, structural reforms are also promoted to address labour market segregation and reduce youth unemployment. The European Commission will assess Member States' measures to boost growth and jobs and propose, where needed, country-specific recommendations regarding youth unemployment. Accordingly, the Commission states that the precautionary principle may only be invoked when the following three preliminary conditions have been met:. The Commission also stated that it was evaluating the potentially adverse effects in conjunction with the WHO, with a particular focus on a recent peer-reviewed report, which found that wind turbines do have a negative impact on human health.

Therefore, all three of the preliminary conditions needed to invoke the precautionary principle have been met. In the light of this information, can the Commission clarify how European consumers can demonstrate the danger associated with a procedure or product? Given that those citizens whose health is affected by living close to industrial wind turbines are rarely, if ever, represented by associations, how does an individual inform the Commission that the product is having a negative impact on their health?

Every citizen has the right to write to and get a direct answer from the Commission. Noise from individual wind turbines and defining local measures that might be required is in the competence of the national or local authority concerned. Employing people over the age of 55 has become a serious problem in the European Union, particularly as the economic crisis affects Europe. It is obvious that the main problem now is the high level of unemployment in almost all EU Member States and in particular, youth unemployment.

However, we should also not forget older people. What steps is the Commission taking or intending to take to ensure that those countries, where discrimination on the grounds of age is most widespread, create conditions which are more favourable to employing older people? If people have been discriminated on grounds of age they may take the legal remedies available in their national Member State.

The Commission is closely monitoring the correct transposition and application of the prohibition of age discrimination as laid down in directive in the Member States and will not hesitate to take the necessary steps to ensure that the directive is correctly transposed and applied at national level.

According to the Greek organisations representing those concerned, the direct or indirect use or misuse of registered Greek designations for example, feta and the use of trademarks or other insignia on labels, implying that the products in question for example, yoghurts are of Greek origin, is assuming alarming proportions on third country markets.

How will it ensure that, for the purposes of trade within the Union and export to third countries, Member States will refrain from dealing in products which encroach on registered PDOs or PGIs? For many years, the Commission has therefore striven to improve the protection of Protected Designations of Origin PDO and Protected Geographical Indications PGI in third countries through multilateral negotiations and through an increasing number of bilateral agreements with our trade partners, either through stand-alone agreements or as part of wider Free Trade Agreements.

Afghans feel enormous anxiety as the deadline for withdrawing international combat forces from Afghanistan looms and powerbrokers jockey for position. Wie soll weiterhin der Zugang zu Bildung aber auch Chancengleichheit gesichert werden? EUR zu diesem globalen Fonds geleistet. There has been a significant improvement in Afghan women's rights since the fall of the Taliban. Many girls and women have gained access to education, which we Europeans both regard as the greatest asset and take as a matter of course.

In its report, the organisation Human Rights Watch summarises the situation for Afghanistan as follows:. How will the rights of young girls and women continue to be strengthened and protected? How will access to education and equal opportunities continue to be guaranteed in the future? The future assistance will be oriented towards Afghanistan's own National Priority Programmes, including the one on Education.

Afghanistan must take its own responsibilities both for development and for security. The EU will continue to press the Afghan authorities to implement their commitments in full, in particular in the field of human rights, including the rights of women and girls, for whom access to education will be an important element. In the EU-Afghanistan Cooperation Agreement currently being negotiated, the human rights dimension will be an essential element and the Agreement will contain a number of core provisions on women and children.

This includes the education sector where a number of EU Member States are actively involved. Afghanistan also benefits from the Global Partnership for Education, coordinated by Denmark in case of Afghanistan. The EU will increasingly follow the principles of division of labour as foreseen in the Agenda for Change and the Action Plan on strengthening the EU's presence in Afghanistan, so as to target funds where they are most needed and with the greatest possible impact.

The overall security situation will, however, be a key factor in determining how EU assistance can be implemented. Does the Commission believe that an organisation which receives such a large proportion of its funding from public-sector sources can be accurately described as an NGO? Does the Commission agree that it would have been better if the leaflet distributed by. For its work, the European Commission has identified a few characteristics normally shared by these entities, such as independence of government.

EU funding is allocated on the basis of the applicable legal base and the financial regulation without any condition which would limit the beneficiaries' independence. Thus the Commission considers that the registration of. The Commission and the European Parliament have set up the transparency register to respond to such concern and offer a data base with all this information as it is the case for.

The Honourable Member is thus invited to use this instrument when she wishes to check on an organisation engaged in lobbying activities. In implementation of this regulation, the Commission organises yearly open calls for proposals in which Transport and Environment has been selected for co-funding of its activities.

Zum Diese Genehmigung hat die Kommission derzeit noch nicht erteilt, obwohl die alte Fassung seit dem 1. Um die seit dem 1. Februar angenommen. August , ABl. L vom 9. However, in order to prevent distortions of competition in the internal market, this requires approval from the Commission. New rules on tax relief for cogeneration plants have therefore been adopted in domestic law; in Germany these rules are to be found in Sections 53a and 53b of the Energy Taxation Act.

However, the new domestic law rules will only enter into force after the necessary approval under state aid rules has been granted by the Commission. If so, what changes may be expected? As a consequence, the Commisison had to make a new, complete assessment of the German tax relief for energy products used in cogeneration plants under the current state aid rules. Juni Aus welchem Grund wurde die Exekutivdirektorin nicht bis zur Ernennung eines neuen Exekutivdirektors durch den stellvertretenden Direktor ersetzt?

Die amtierende Exekutivdirektorin wurde am 1. Im Jahr hat der Verwaltungsrat ihr Mandat bis zum They included breaches of public procurement rules, and missions and travel expenses not accounted for. However, the current Executive Director has remained in charge, despite her questionable management of the agency, instead of being provisionally replaced by the Deputy Director. How much will her pension be upon completion of her current contract as Executive Director of the European Environment Agency?

Would other pension rules apply if she were to leave before the end of her contract? Why was the current Executive Director not replaced by the Deputy Director until a new Executive Director had been appointed? The rules governing the calculation and settlement of the retirement pension are set out in the Staff regulations. The same rules apply to temporary staff who leave at the end of their contract and those who leave before the end of that contract.

The Management board, who is entrusted with the power to appoint the Executive Director of the Agency, did not decide to terminate the contract of the Executive Director before the natural term of office. Therefore, there was no justification for the Deputy Director to replace the Executive Director in her functions. Following the recent ingredients scandals affecting Ireland, the UK, Poland, France and probably other Member States, does the Commission intend to take action?

With the free movement of goods and services — brought about by the Maastricht Treaty — easier than ever before, is the Commission of the view that better traceability is needed, as well as minimum sentences for those involved in food crimes? Does the Commission think that minimum pricing and profit returns for farmers would eliminate the race to the bottom, in terms of quality, by large supermarket chains such as Tesco, Dunnes and Aldi, which demand low-cost goods from suppliers?

Does the Commission feel that more should be done to let hard-pressed consumers know that what is packaged as nice healthy food can actually be full of unhealthy ingredients? Does the Commission feel that, as a general rule, the public needs to be better informed about the risks of eating processed foods?

What will the Commission do to ensure that regular DNA testing is carried out on food products? Can the Commission state what obligations Member States are under in terms of testing? There is an extensive body of Union rules to ensure that food is safe. Traceability is compulsory for food business operators at all stages of the food chain. These existing traceability systems made possible that the extent and origin of the recent fraud has been revealed.

Member States are responsible for the enforcement of Union law and shall verify, through official controls, compliance by the operators. However, no mandatory DNA testing of meat is required by Union legislation. Member States are also entitled to determine the level and type of penalties to be imposed for infringements of food legislation.

However, minimum pricing and profit returns for farmers would not avoid fraud. Die Kommission hat diesen Bedenken bei der umfassenden Datenschutzreform ebenfalls Rechnung getragen. Can the Commission confirm that this is true? These laws may be in breach of international law and may affect the fundamental rights of individuals in the Union.

It is primarily for national authorities, in particular the independent data protection authorities, to monitor compliance with data protection rules and investigate any violation thereof. The Commission also duly took into account these concerns in the comprehensive reform package of data protection rules.

Wie hat sich das Durchschnittsalter der pensionierten EU-Beamten in den Jahren , und entwickelt? Wie haben sich die gesamten Versorgungskosten der pensionierten Beamten der Kommission in den Jahren , und entwickelt? Wie entwickelten sich diese Verbindlichkeiten in den Jahren , und ? Im Zeitraum sind Bedienstete in den Ruhestand getreten. EUR gesunken. Der Wert der Verbindlichkeit zum How many former EU officials from Germany and Austria are currently in retirement?

How did the average age of EU officials in retirement change in , and ? How did the overall costs relating to retired Commission officials change in , and ? How did these liabilities change in , and ? Currently there are 1 former staff members with German nationality and 47 former staff members with Austrian nationality in retirement.

As noted in the EU annual accounts note 2. The value of the liability at How many EU officials aged between 50 and 55, 56 and 60, 61 and 65 and over 65 retired in , and ? Five of them had German nationality and one had Austrian nationality. The average retirement age of all officials who retired in was How many officials were granted early retirement due to invalidity between and ?

How have the costs relating to EU officials granted early retirement due to invalidity changed between and ? How has the average age of EU officials granted early retirement due to invalidity changed between and ? This represents an amount which is stable at 2. The average age of staff members at the moment when they were granted the invalidity allowance has increased from 52 in to 53 in Betrifft: Untersuchungen gegen Beamte oder Bedienstete der Kommission.

Sind die verbleibenden 12 Untersuchungen inzwischen abgeschlossen? Wenn ja, welche Ergebnisse ergaben die Untersuchungen? Wenn nein, wie viele Untersuchungen sind mittlerweile abgeschlossen, und welche Ergebnisse gab es bei den bereits abgeschlossenen Untersuchungen? Wenn ja, wie viele und gibt es dazu bereits Ergebnisse? Have the remaining 12 investigations now been completed?

If so, what were the findings? If not, how many investigations have been completed and what were the findings in those cases? What follow-up measures have been taken in the cases completed since the beginning of ? Has OLAF opened any more investigations into officials or other staff members of the Commission for corruption since the beginning of ? If so, how many?

Are the results available? Have the guidelines drawn up by the officials or other staff members concerned and the decisions that they have taken been subjected to scrutiny and, where applicable, reassessed in order to ascertain or correct the influence of corruption?

In relation to the 9 investigations that OLAF has concluded, for 2 no recommendations were issued while for the remaining 7 cases both disciplinary and judicial recommendations were adopted. In one case the official concerned was retrograded, the other cases are still ongoing both from the disciplinary and criminal sides. According to the information given by OLAF, OLAF has opened no new investigation concerning allegations of corruption of Commission officials and agents in and one coordination.

Assessing the impact of any irregularities identified is generally part of an investigation. Even during an investigation, where OLAF finds that the misconduct being investigated might continue to produce effect, it may recommend precautionary measures to the service concerned to avoid this. Following an investigation, OLAF may recommend not only a penal or disciplinary follow-up, but also a financial follow-up, namely the recovery of monies unduly paid Finally, OLAF may also make administrative recommendations to a service following an investigation, to ensure that any systemic weaknesses identified in the course of an investigation are addressed, in order to avoid a recurrence of the irregularities and to protect the financial interests of the Union.

Betrifft: Beamte mit Hauptwohnsitz in Luxemburg. How many Commission officials had their main residence in Luxembourg in , , and ? What was the cost of missions from Luxembourg to Brussels in , , and ? What was the cost of missions from Brussels to Luxembourg in , , and ? The Commission informs the Honourable Member that the number of statutory Commission staff based in Luxembourg had evolved over last four years as follows: in — , in — , in — and in — The Commission is not in the possession of calculations of how many of Luxembourg-based officials travelled to Brussels on mission once or more than once, and what is the cost of missions from Luxembourg to Brussels and vice versa.

Production of such calculations would require extensive resources. The Commission can provide the following information as regards the data requested for Commission premises in Brussels. As regards the data requested for Luxembourg and other places where the Commission has offices, the Commission needs more time to collect the information it needs to answer the question, as the responsibility for granting access to Commission premises outside of Brussels is decentralised over different Commission services.

The Commission will communicate its findings as soon as possible. This surface area is in fact reduced by the increased use of shared offices and open space offices. Die Kommission bedauert, dass die Beantwortung der Anfrage mehr Zeit als geplant in Anspruch genommen hat.

How much did the Commission pay for the provision of consultancy services by external firms in , and ? How much did the Commission pay per directorate-general for the provision of consultancy services by external firms in , and ? What are the names of the 10 firms which received the highest consultancy fees from the Commission in , and respectively?

How much did the Commission pay per firm for the provision of consultancy services by external firms in , and ? The Commission is collecting the information it needs to answer the question. It will communicate its findings as soon as possible. A set of detailed breakdowns of payments made to external consultancy services in , and in total, per directorate-general and per firm, as well as the names and amounts of the 10 firms which received the highest consultancy fees, is provided in Annex to this reply.

The Commission regrets that the compilation of the reply has taken longer than foreseen. For the sake of coherence, consultancy was defined as services provided by external firms with a primary purpose of giving expert advice. Wie hoch waren die Kosten, die durch den Krankenstand von Beamten des Rates in den Jahren , , und entstanden? Wie viele Tage befand sich ein Beamter des Rates durchschnittlich in den Jahren , , und im Krankenstand?

Die durchschnittliche Zahl der Krankenstandstage Kalendertage, d. Zu den Kosten, die durch den Krankenstand von Mitarbeitern des Rates entstanden, liegen keine konkreten Daten vor. What was the cost of sick leave taken by Council officials in , , and ? The average number of days of sick leave calendar days, i. There are no specific data available concerning the cost of sick leave taken by Council staff. Wie hoch waren die Kosten, die durch den Krankenstand von Beamten der Kommission in den Jahren , , und entstanden?

Wie viele Tage befand sich ein Beamter der Kommission durchschnittlich in den Jahren , , und im Krankenstand? Auch langfristige Krankheitsurlaube sind in diesen Angaben enthalten. What was the cost of sick leave taken by Commission officials in , , and ? The absence rate remained stable through out the period at 3. Long term sick leaves are included in these figures. Betrifft: Von Energiesparlampen ausgehende Gefahren.

Wie beurteilt die Kommission diese neuerlichen erschreckenden Ergebnisse? Haben nicht solche Stoffe, die im Verdacht stehen, Krebs zu erzeugen, in Energiesparlampen nichts zu suchen? Wie beurteilt die Kommission dies? Die Kommission hat keine Kenntnis von neuen Informationen, wonach Energiesparlampen krebserregende Stoffe freisetzen. Da die Emissionen von Energiesparlampen kein Risiko darstellen, rechnet die Kommission nicht mit negativen Auswirkungen auf das Vertrauen der Verbraucher.

Now, fresh research by an approved laboratory has shown that energy-saving lightbulbs made by a well-known manufacturer release, when in use, toxic vapours that are suspected of being carcinogenic. Expert opinion is that many of the substances identified, such as phenol, should be scrupulously avoided in indoor spaces.

Apart from the issue of mercury and the problems of disposal, it now turns out that energy-saving lightbulbs may also be a source of harmful indoor emissions. Surely, substances suspected of being carcinogenic have no place in energy-saving lightbulbs? Do the latest findings not further undermine consumer confidence in energy-saving lightbulbs? What scientific opinion is available, including on the presence of mercury vapour, to prove that energy-saving lightbulbs are not harmful?

If the Commission is unaware of any such scientific opinion, could it commission an expert report on the subject? The Commission is not aware of any new information indicating that energy saving lamps emit carcinogenic emissions.

The UBA came to the conclusion that the measured values were not realistic and would have needed to be divided by a factor The UBA concluded that the VOC-emissions from energy saving lamps were negligible and did not represent any risk to human health. The Commission is committed to ensuring the highest level of protection of consumer health and safety required by the Treaty, including with regard to carcinogenic chemicals. The emissions from energy savings lamps were however considered not to present a risk to human health, as referred to above.

Since the emissions from energy-saving lightbulbs do not represent a risk, the Commission does not expect any negative impact on consumer confidence. The Commission has indeed commissioned several expert reports on the subject.

Wenn ja, welche? The EU does not have a specific rule whereby goods purchased in army stores are not subject to import duty; however the rules above-referred for consignments of negligible value and consignments sent between private individuals apply. Gibt es schon Zwischenberichte, ob bzw. The worldwide trade in illegally sourced timber, which is increasingly centred on China, is worth billions of dollars.

It is virtually impossible for end-purchasers to determine whether wood has been illegally sourced. Products such as floor coverings and mass-produced furniture are increasingly making their way onto markets in the West.

Are interim reports available on the impact, if any, of the measures taken at EU level to curb the illegal sourcing of timber? Is the Commission aware of a decline in demand for RoLa, or of the closure of loading yards, in other Member States?

If so, are there moves to adjust the targets set in the white paper — perhaps even to reflect a change of approach at EU level? It is currently not aware of similar effects on other corridors due to changes in national policies, but follows possible developments very closely. The accompanied combined transport accounts only for a very small fraction of the total combined transport market in Europe.

Die Kommission wird ihre Anstrengungen weiterhin entschlossen fortsetzen, u. Technological progress is resulting in the rapid demographic masculinisation of society, particularly in areas where the birth rate has fallen and people are now having only one or two children instead of six. It has previously been assumed that women's status in society would improve if women were scarce. However, if it is hard to find a woman, men will do anything to get one. In practice, this has led to even more women being kidnapped or forced into marriage or prostitution.

As a rule, male-dominated societies have more problems with crime. To what extent does EU development policy take account of gender-specific abortion? To what extent is this highly dangerous social trend being addressed in pre-accession talks e. The Commission is committed to pursuing its efforts, including through awareness raising campaigns, to ensure full respect for fundamental rights in general and women's rights and gender equality in particular. Nach einer ersten Analyse der technischen Unterlagen der italienischen geografischen Angabe g.

Italy has issued a decree to the effect that, in future, grappa must be filled into bottles in Italy. Up to now, Italy has exported grappa in tanks and barrels to countries such as Germany, where the spirit is made ready for consumption and marketed by specialised firms. Mandatory bottling in Italy would also have significant ecological consequences, because the increased weight of bottles would result in higher CO2 emissions in transport. What stage has been reached in the legal checks being carried out by the Commission?

The Commission asked in particular to outline the reasons that led Italy to the establishment of such measure and to provide evidence that such measure is necessary to protect the quality and reputation of the geographical indication and based on objective and non-discriminating criteria.

Italy sent recently a reply, which is currently being translated. The legal analysis of this issue, by the Commission services, will only be possible in the light of the clarifications received. The Commission remains at the disposal of the Honourable member for any additional information following the examination of the Italian reply.

What further immediate measures does it intend to take in order to investigate, together with the Turkish attorneys, whether the Turkish judiciary can be considered to have acted with impartiality and efficiency? Why does the Commission not press the Turkish Government to free the thousands of detainees in the country — peaceful Kurdish political activists, journalists, human rights defenders, trade unionists and students — and to ensure that an end is put to such unfair sentences?

Is this a feasible measure to take in a country that is top of the list in terms of violations of articles of the European Convention on Human Rights? The Commission continues to be fully informed about the specific case and the sentencing of Pinar Selek to life imprisonment. The Commission underlines the importance to respect the right to a fair trial within a reasonable period of time, enshrined in the European Convention of Human Rights.

All court proceedings must be in line with the international standards set out by the European Convention of Human Rights, to which Turkey is a signatory. Any instance in which these standards are not met is a cause for serious concern. The Commission will continue to monitor the case closely and to reiterate the importance of respect of the right to a fair trial. Nitrogen dioxide is a significant pollutant and is especially associated with respiratory problems.

Also, a public consultation on a broad range of policy options to reduce the impacts on air pollution has been recently carried out. Based on the responses, and on the outcome of an on-going impact assessment, the Commission will determine the most appropriate for proposal before the end of As this definition shows, the directive applies to the sale and purchase of goods by an agent but not to the sale and purchase of services.

Does the Commission recognise the importance of protecting agents specialising in the sale and purchase of services as well as those involved in the sale and purchase of goods? Given the current economic climate and the fact that in Ireland, for example, many such workers have lost their jobs, does the Commission believe that more needs to be done to offer these workers protection, for instance by ensuring that they receive redundancy pay if they are laid off from work as a commercial agent?

If so, what does the Commission intend to do in this regard? At present, the Commission is not aware of any reasons which would plead in favour of extending the directive to self-employed sale and purchase of services. In what year did the Commission begin to realise that many consumers book their holidays themselves online?

Is there a timeline? Two of the most significant changes since the adoption of the existing directive in are the introduction and expansion of Internet as a distribution channel and the emergence of low cost air carriers which both have contributed to a change in the way consumers organise their holidays. In order to address these changes, the Commission has assessed the package travel market thoroughly, including potential policy options for a response to these changes. A second public consultation was conducted in early In the Commission carried out a study to test a Package Travel Label and consumer behaviour when purchasing dynamic packages.

Recently, there have been discussions with consumer organisations and the Commission also debated the issue with business leaders. A formal impact assessment process is under way and includes different options for the way forward, for instance a repeal of the directive, keeping the status quo or a modernisation of the directive.

This would be expected to enable the Commission to announce its decision for the way forward in the course of this year. Does the Commission know how many travel agencies closed down in Ireland and each of the Member States last year , and between and inclusive?

The access to the profession of travel agent through registration or licensing is a decentralised competence of the Member States or their regions. The relevant legislation differs from one country to the other and makes the compilation of data on closure of travel agencies very difficult. Moreover it is difficult to distinguish between closure due to bankruptcy, consolidation, or to regular business closure. At the end of , Ireland was recorded to have travel agents. In Austria, over the period , a steady increase in the number of travel agencies was registered from 2 travel agencies in to 2 in On the contrary, in Germany, over the same reference period, the number of travel agencies has slightly decreased, mainly due to consolidation, from 11 travel agencies in to 10 in Can the Commission provide data as to how many consumers are involved in this practice?

The Commission is aware of the growing popularity of the Internet booking of holidays by consumers. Is the Commission aware that males in Ireland who buy private health insurance are often forced to buy packages which include items such as maternity benefits? The Commission does not have specific information on the private health insurance packages offered in Ireland.

Costs related to risks of pregnancy and maternity should therefore not be attributed to the members of one sex only. There is only one EU organic logo. It symbolises the marriage of Europe the stars derived from the European flag and Nature the stylised leaf and the green colour. This logo is registered as a collective mark. All operators are in particular subject to controls at least once a year by specialised inspectors from the nationally appointed control bodies and control authorities.

The recent findings confirm that the systems of official controls and enforcement established in the Member States are capable of identifying and handling food concerns arising along the food chain. The Commission has been active — at both the political and technical levels — in coordinating the pending investigations in the Member States concerned to identify the prevalence of the fraud at issue as soon as possible.

Phenylbutazone is a veterinary drug which is banned for use in food-producing animals. The Commission agrees that best practice sharing among Member States is very important, also in cases like the present one, where close cooperation among Member States and the Commission is being deployed to tackle the issue at hand. Can the Commission confirm that when sulphites are present in wine, this must be stated on the label? Can the Commission state whether or not wine producers have to provide information as to the levels of sulphites present in a particular wine?

If not, why not? Allergens must be labelled in the list of ingredients of the food, with a clear reference to the name of the allergic substance. The level at which allergens are present in foods is not required to be indicated on the label. There is currently no consensus on the threshold doses for food allergens eliciting adverse reactions and analytical methods for detecting and quantifying the presence of allergens have not been agreed at Union level.

For those reasons, the indication of a level of allergens present in foods could be misleading. For the time being, the Commission is not considering to change existing legislation on the matter. Oggetto: Disturbi del comportamento alimentare. Pur riconoscendo che i disordini alimentari sono una vera e propria patologia, tuttavia la Commissione non organizza attualmente campagne di informazione e prevenzione a livello dell'UE.

Tramite il Settimo programma quadro la Commissione ha finanziato finora 10 progetti legati ai disturbi del comportamento alimentare per un totale di circa 18 milioni di EUR. The age of onset of these diseases has lowered, with an increasing number of children and pre-adolescents showing abnormal eating behaviour.

While recognising that eating disorders are a true disease, the Commission is not currently organising any information campaigns or prevention at EU level. Can the Commission clarify whether there will be any other sources of funding for projects concerning eating disorders in the future? Eating disorders can lead to serious health problems, often having their onset in young age.

Eating disorders are also addressed by a number of past and present projects supported by EU Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development. Apart from these targeted projects, the Commission does not support awareness raising campaigns on eating disorders at the national level. At present, it has no plans to conduct prevention and information campaigns on this issue.

This is likely to provide opportunities for research on food related diseases and diabetes. It is too early to ascertain the specific research issues addressed. I passeggeri di quel volo erano convinti di viaggiare su un aereo dell'Alitalia e non erano stati informati fino a quel momento di essere a bordo di un aeromobile Carpatair.

La Procura di Civitavecchia ha aperto due inchieste: una a carico dei piloti romeni per disastro colposo e l'altra contro Alitalia per frode in commercio. Questo incidente ha fatto luce su un fenomeno che si sta pericolosamente diffondendo tra le compagnie aeree europee.

Come spiegato nel precedente paragrafo 2, tali contratti commerciali sono di uso corrente e sono consentiti dalla vigente normativa unionale. Spetta al locatario in questo caso, Alitalia decidere il marchio commerciale dei servizi offerti. The passengers had believed they were travelling on an Alitalia aircraft and were not informed until after the event that the aircraft was in fact owned by Carpatair.

The only information contained on their tickets was an alphanumeric code, which failed to provide clear information regarding the service, while the aircraft, although it belonged to Carpatair, bore Alitalia insignia. The Civitavecchia prosecution authorities have opened two inquiries, placing the Romanian pilots under investigation for criminal negligence and Alitalia for commercial fraud.

This incident has brought to light what is becoming an alarmingly common practice among airlines, which frequently contract out certain routes to low-cost carriers without clearly identifying them on the tickets. Does it know whether any other airlines make use of outside carriers without this being made clear to passengers when they book their flights? Does it consider that the national civil aviation authorities should be called on to resolve this problem without delay, ensuring that passengers on any given flight are clearly informed as to the identity of the carrier?

Does it consider that in this case Alitalia effectively defrauded its passengers by failing to provide them with sufficient information, given that the aircraft, bearing Alitalia insignia, and its crew, wearing Alitalia uniforms, were in fact Romanian? Does it consider that the passengers are accordingly entitled to compensation?

EU airlines use commercial wet lease arrangements with other EU airlines as part of their normal operating practices. Because the operator conducting the actual flight i. The commercial branding of the services provided is for the lesee to decide in this case Alitalia. The use of third parties to provide services under the umbrella of a particular brand is common practice in the aviation sector. Il decreto di recepimento italiano n. Va ricordato che sono i giorni con cui in media lo Stato italiano paga i fornitori con punti di oltre giorni in alcune regioni italiane a fronte di una media UE di 65 giorni, con alcuni paesi nordici che arrivano anche a Inoltre, i debiti pregressi in Italia ammontano a circa 90 miliardi di euro.

A tutt'oggi 17 Stati membri hanno notificato le loro misure nazionali di recepimento:. La Commissione prende atto della nota n. Gli Stati membri che presentano ritardi di pagamento stanno affrontando il problema a seconda della loro situazione particolare. Can the Commission provide an overview of the transposition of the directive in the Member States? Can the Commission provide an up-to-date overview of how long it takes public bodies to pay suppliers in Europe?

Can the Commission investigate the possibility of establishing a system which would make it possible for debt arrears owed to businesses by States to be excluded from the calculation of public debt, and thus from the constraints imposed by stability parameters? The verification of these measures is ongoing. The Member States that have payment arrears are dealing with them according to their own situations.

The liquidation of commercial debt will be reflected in a corresponding increase in the Maastricht debt. This may conflict with the debt reduction benchmark recently introduced in the SGP. Oggetto: Roma, impianto AMA-Salaria: possibile delocalizzazione dell'impianto e tutela dell'ambiente e della salute pubblica.

Nel l'AMA S. Vale la pena ricordare che da questo trattamento viene separata la frazione secca, che viene trasformata in CDR combustibile derivato dai rifiuti , dalla parte umida, che viene trattata per produrre FOS frazione organica stabilizzata. But the site was then converted into a sorting and treatment plant for waste from non-segregated waste collections in Rome, even though it lies behind heavily populated built-up areas.

The Italian judiciary opened an inquiry after the regional environmental protection agency Arpa Lazio carried out tests, inspected the piles of refuse at the Via Salaria site and determined that all was not as it should be. It is worth noting that the treatment involves separating dry waste from wet waste and then converting the former into RDF refuse derived fuel and the latter into SOF stabilised organic fraction. The stench emanating from the plant has grown even stronger and become more persistent, causing enormous inconvenience and health risks for both local residents and workers on the site itself.

Such plants reduce the amount of waste to be landfilled and thus implement the waste hierarchy. I progetti relativi al turismo sono cofinanziati dal Fondo europeo di sviluppo regionale FESR nel quadro di un Piano integrato di sviluppo urbano sostenibile nel rispettivo comune. Pisa ha partecipato a progetti di cooperazione culturale supportati dal programma Cultura. In the light of this, can the Commission:. Provide the data and percentages for the direct and indirect EU funds available to Pisa and how they have been used?

Give an overview of the funding to which the municipality of Pisa could have access to promote activities and projects in the field of tourism, culture and sport? Give an overview of the funding to which the municipality of Pisa could have access to promote agricultural activities and farming-related business ventures?

State whether and how the municipality of Pisa could make use of the funds currently being discussed in relation to the TEN-T Guidelines? State whether, and how, the municipality of Pisa could use the funds currently being discussed with regard to the new regulations that fall under the cohesion policy, for the development and revitalisation of urban areas? The Commission does not have aggregate data on the use of funds managed under either the shared or centralised management modes direct and indirect at the municipal level.

Pisa was involved in cultural cooperation projects supported by the Culture programme. For , the Connecting Europe Facility Regulation proposes to concentrate funding on the core network. Pisa is situated along the core rail and road network, which will be eligible for such funding. Its airport is not part of this but could possibly benefit from the deployment phase of the European air traffic control infrastructure modernisation programme.

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The cervix was as a single annular conformation carrying out communication between the uterus and the vagina. The vagina has lengthened and circular muscle and the vulva with dense anatomical conformation with a quite pronounced clitoris. In addition, with regard to the establishment of a cell line fibroblasts for the gene bank enrichment, cells showed a low clonogenic capacity, especially when compared to domestic dogs, which can be explained by "in vitro" environment, age and diet of the animal.

However, it was possible to create a bank of limited cell number. This study had morphological and preservationist character and aimed to help at long term in the conservation of wild animal's genetic resources. Full Text Available The maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous are two South American canids with large overlap in their geographic distribution.

However, there are few data on the comparative ecology of these species. The aim of this research was to quantify the diet of these two canids living in syntopy at three levels: frequency of occurrence, minimum number of individuals preyed and estimated biomass ingested. Additionally, seasonality in the consumption of major groups of food items and aspects of prey size distribution were assessed. General results showed that both canids are omnivorous in accordance with other studies.

By occurrences, the wolves consumed vegetal and animal food in similar proportions, whereas the foxes consumed more animals, mainly insects. In contrast, both canids ingested mainly animal food if biomass is considered. The maned wolf consumed more wolf's fruit Solanum lycocarpum and small mammals in the dry season, and miscellaneous fruits during the wet season.

The crab-eating fox also ingested more miscellaneous fruits in the wet season, but the insects were mostly consumed during dry months. The crab-eating fox is more generalist than the maned wolf, but the wolf seems better able to handle distinct prey types. The distribution of prey sizes suggested separate food niches: while the maned wolf consumed a larger spectrum of prey sizes, especially small vertebrates between Sarcocystis cruzi Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae no cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous Sarcocystis cruzi Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous.

Full Text Available Esporocistos de Sarcocystis foram identificados nas amostras fecais de um cachorro-do-mato. Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were identified in feces samples of a crab-eating fox, and were orally given to a suckling calf; after 3 months of infection, sarcocysts morphologically similar to Sarcocystis cruzi were observed in cardiac and skeletal striated muscles. The cardiac muscles of this calf were orally given to a puppy free of coccidia, that shed sporocysts in its feces.

To compare the morphology of the sporocysts and cysts, a second puppy was fed on bovine cardiac muscles infected naturally, and sporocysts identical to those shed by the first dog were recovered from its feces. In spite of the significant difference between sporocysts found in the mucosa of the crab-eating fox and those shed by the first and second puppies, the species observed in this study was considered to be Sarcocystis cruzi, based on size of the sporocyts, morphology of the cyst wall, and the pray-predator cycle.

Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, : relato de caso. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, relato de caso. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous , Linnaeus, Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species.

A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.

The albuginea comprised Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores. Abundance of Conepatus chinga Carnivora , Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil. Full Text Available Between January and December , the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga Molina, , at four locations in southern Brazil.

In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1, km, we obtained observations of 20 mammal species. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas.

We estimated 1. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus Fisher, and Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, , we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

Patterns of distribution and current protection status of the Carnivora Endemism in Chiroptera is low, however, with Die Nasionale Kruger Wildtuin is nie net 'n belangrike sent rum vir spesies- verskeidenheid wat bet ref die Carnivora en University of Kansas.

Endemism in Chiroptera is low, however, with only two endemic species in the fynbos and Karoo biomes. The Carnivora display less biome specificity and endemism than the Chiroptera. Whereas the north-eastern savannas have the highest species richness, the transition between the Nama-Karoo and grassland biomes Carnivora from the Kanapoi hominin site, northern Kenya.

The assemblage from Kanapoi represents the most diverse early Pliocene carnivore assemblage from sub-Saharan Africa. Carnivora from Kanapoi were originally described by Werdelin a , but continuing field work has brought to light significant new material from the site, shedding new light on the earliest post-Miocene radiation of Carnivora in Africa. Most importantly, a second species of Enhydriodon has been recovered from the site, including the first specimen to include a large part of the neurocranium.

This makes Kanapoi the first site to include two species of this genus. This addition to the fauna will be of prime significance to understanding the ecology and evolutionary radiation of these giant, extinct otters. Other significant new finds include additional material of a wildcat-sized felid. Finds of this group are rare, and the new Kanapoi material adds significantly to our knowledge of the stem lineage of the genus Felis, which is widespread in Africa today. A reexamination of the Carnivora malleus Mammalia, Placentalia.

Full Text Available Authoritative anatomical references depict domestic dogs and cats as having a malleus with a short rostral anterior process that is connected via a ligament to the ectotympanic of the auditory bulla.

Similar mallei have been reported for representatives of each of the 15 extant families of Carnivora , the placental order containing dogs and cats. This morphology is in contrast to a malleus with a long rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic that is considered to be primitive for mammals. Our reexamination of extant carnivorans found representatives from 12 families that possess an elongate rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic.

Consequently, the malleus also is a component of the bulla. In a subset of our carnivoran sample, we confirmed that the elongate rostral process on the ectotympanic is continuous with the rest of the malleus through a thin osseous lamina.

This morphology is reconstructed as primitive for Carnivora. Prior inaccurate descriptions of the taxa in our sample having mallei continuous with the bulla were based on damaged mallei. In addition to coupling to the ectotympanic, the rostral process of the malleus was found to have a hook-like process that fits in a facet on the skull base in representatives from seven families felids, nandiniids, viverrids, canids, ursids, procyonids, and mustelids; its occurrence in the remaining families could not be ascertained.

This feature is named herein the mallear hook and is likewise reconstructed to be primitive for Carnivora. We also investigated mallei in one additional placental order reported to have mallei not connected to the ectotympanic, Pholidota pangolins, the extant sister group of Carnivora.

We found pholidotans to also have anchored mallei with long rostral processes, but lacking mallear hooks. In light of our results, other mammals previously reported to have short rostral processes should be reexamined.

Effects of roads on the vertebrates diversity of the Indigenous Territory Paresi and its surrounding. Roadkill impact is still underestimated due to the lack of knowledge of its intensity and effect on animal populations. We assessed roadkill rates and points with higher rates of roadkills, recording the most impacted species, seasonal effects, biomass loss, activity period of species, and traffic volume.

We recorded roadkills in 4, km travelled, a rate of 0. Mammals were the most impacted with roadkills Among mammals On highway MT human-modified landscape , we recorded roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were C. Whilst on highway MT Paresi Indigenous Land , we recorded 23 roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were Myrmecophaga tridactyla The low roadkill rate in the Paresi Indigenous Land might be related to the presence of fauna pathways along the highway and the availability of a forested landscape.

Full Text Available Abstract Roadkill impact is still underestimated due to the lack of knowledge of its intensity and effect on animal populations. On highway MT human-modified landscape, we recorded roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were C. Whilst on highway MT Paresi Indigenous Land, we recorded 23 roadkilled mammals, and the most impacted were Myrmecophaga tridactyla Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals.

Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration With several examples we discuss how this slow-fast continuum, and related patterns of variation in reproductive loop elasticity, can be used in the formulation of tentative management plans for threatened species that cannot wait for the results of thorough demographic studies.

We argue Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals: implications for their conservation. Full Text Available Of the species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks, and responses to management strategies.

We show that the elasticity patterns i. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration of important life cycles and their contributions to population growth rate.

These general elasticity patterns among species, and their correlation with simple life history characteristics like body mass, age of first reproduction and life span, enables the extrapolation of population dynamical properties to unstudied species. We argue, however, that such management programs should explicitly include a plan for learning about the key demographic rates and how these are affected by environmental drivers and threats.

Helminth parasites of Galictis cuja Carnivora , Mustelidae, from localities in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Full Text Available Abstract The current study aimed to investigate the helminth parasites of a population of Galictis cuja Carnivora , Mustelidae that occur in Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern region of Brazil.

We necropsied 18 specimens of G. A total of six species of helminths were identified: Dioctophyme renale, Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp. Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp. Data provided in the current study when compared to the previous reports of parasitism by helminths in G. Kimberley, Cape Collectors No. The stomach contents of this specimen are detailed in.

Table I. The habitat where the specimen was obtained was degraded Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis Carnivora , Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April to March we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic streamlet and semilotic hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil.

Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place.

The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae Mammalia, Carnivora. Full Text Available Mustelids Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms.

It is the most diversity family in Carnivora , and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae.

However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra Eira and wolverine Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, , but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons Galictis, Patagonian weasel Lyncodon, marbled polecat Vormela and striped weasels Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, , but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, The subfamily that includes ferret badgers Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, , because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus.

Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided. Occurrence and morphometrics of the brachioradialis muscle in wild carnivorans Carnivora : Caniformia, Feliformia. Full Text Available The brachioradialis is an important muscle that acts in the external rotation of the forearm supination.

However, its occurrence is controversial and little studied in the order Carnivora. Thus, this study investigates the occurrence and anatomo-functional arrangement of this muscle in wild carnivorans species. Fifty-eight thoracic limbs of specimens from species of Canidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Felidae were dissected. The brachioradialis muscle was identified in all species, although it was unilaterally or bilaterally absent in some canid individuals.

The ratios demonstrated significant differences in the anatomical proportions among the families, with greater functional importance in the mustelids, procyonids, and felids because of a set of elaborate movements in the thoracic limb of representatives of these families when compared to canids.

Evolution and function of fossoriality in the carnivora : implications for group-living. In this study we evaluate whether group-living may be intrinsically associated with fossoriality; a link that is well supported in other taxa, but hitherto under-evaluated in the Carnivora. We make two over-arching predictions: i that fossoriality will be associated with carnivoran sociality; and ii that this association will be most evident in those species making extended use of subterranean dens.

From a meta-analysis of key behavioural, ecological, ontological, and trophic traits, we demonstrate that three quarters of carnivore species exhibit some reliance on underground dens. Congruence between life-history traits and metrics of fossoriality evidenced that: 1 there are phylogenetic, and morphological constraints on wholly fossorial life-histories; 2 fossoriality correlated positively with the extent of offspring altriciality, linked to the use of natal dens; 3 burrow use increased with latitude; and 4 insectivorous carnivores were more fossorial than predatory carnivores.

Corroborating work in the Rodentia, fossorial traits associated strongly with carnivoran group-living tendencies, where species utilising subterranean natal dens are 2. Furthermore, using comparative analyses, we evidence support for an evolutionary relationship between diet, fossoriality and sociality. We propose that fossorial dens act as a safe haven, promoting fitness benefits, territorial inheritance and cooperative breeding.

Lyssaviruses are unsegmented RNA viruses causing rabies. Their vectors belong to the Carnivora and Chiroptera orders. We studied 36 carnivoran and 17 chiropteran lyssaviruses representing the main genotypes and variants. We compared their genes encoding the surface glycoprotein, which is responsible for receptor recognition and membrane fusion. The glycoprotein is the main protecting antigen and bears virulence determinants.

Point mutation is the main force in lyssavirus evolution, as Sawyer's test and phylogenetic analysis showed no evidence of recombination. Relative-rate tests suggested similar rates of evolution for all lyssavirus lineages. Therefore, the absence of recombination and similar evolutionary rates make phylogeny-based conclusions reliable. Phylogenetic reconstruction strongly supported the hypothesis that host switching occurred in the history of lyssaviruses.

Indeed, lyssaviruses evolved in chiropters long before the emergence of carnivoran rabies, very likely following spillovers from bats. Using dated isolates, the average rate of evolution was estimated to be roughly 4. Consequently, the emergence of carnivoran rabies from chiropteran lyssaviruses was determined to have occurred to 1, years ago. Glycoprotein segments accumulating more dN than dS were distinctly detected in carnivoran and chiropteran lyssaviruses.

They may have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the two distinct mammal orders. In carnivoran lyssaviruses they overlapped the main antigenic sites, II and III, whereas in chiropteran lyssaviruses they were located in regions of unknown functions. A new basal caniform Mammalia: Carnivora from the middle Eocene of North America and remarks on the phylogeny of early carnivorans. Full Text Available Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive.

Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans.

The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium neither condition is observed in L.

A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty remains with respect to the phylogenetic origin of the Carnivora.

Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces.

We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora , Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces.

The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua Carnivora : Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal. Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora.

However, coatis Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua Linnaeus, nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves.

Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance. Background Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive.

Considerable uncertainty remains. Binturong Arctictis binturong and Kinkajou Potos flavus digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates. Full Text Available Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption.

Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent NDF and acid detergent ADF fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected.

In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon. Molecular evolution of adiponectin in Carnivora and its mRNA expression in relation to hepatic lipidosis. The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to hepatic lipidosis.

In addition, adiponectin mRNA expression was studied in the retroperitoneal fat of the American mink Neovison vison , as hepatic lipidosis with close similarities to NAFLD can be rapidly induced to the species by fasting. The homologies between the determined carnivoran mRNA sequences and that of the domestic dog were In the future, the obtained sequences can be utilized in further studies of adiponectin expression in comparative endocrinology.

Copyright c Elsevier Inc. Ticks Acari: Ixodida on wild carnivores in Brazil. The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July to September in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil.

During field work, a total of ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous crab-eating fox , 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus maned wolf , 30 Puma concolor puma , 26 Panthera onca jaguar , 12 Procyon cancrivorus crab-eating raccoon , 4 Speothos venaticus bush dog , 6 Pseudalopex vetulus hoary fox , 6 Nasua nasua coati , 6 Leopardus pardalis ocelot , 2 Leopardus tigrinus oncilla , 1 Leopardus wiedii margay , 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi jaguarundi , 1 Oncifelis colocolo pampas cat , 1 Eira barbara tayara , 1 Galictis vittata grison , 1 Lontra longicaudis neotropical otter , and 1 Potus flavus kinkajou.

The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus pampas fox , Conepatus chinga Molina's hog-nosed skunk , and Conepatus semistriatus striped hog-nosed skunk. We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species O. Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi Geoffroy's cat , Atelocynus microtis short-eared dog , Pteronura brasiliensis giant otter , Mustela africana Amazon weasel , and Bassaricyon gabbii olingo.

Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma 12 species , Ixodes 1. Dipylidium caninum Cyclophyllidea, Dipylidiidae in a wild carnivore from Brazil. We report Dipylidium caninum for the first time in a wild carnivore in Brazil, the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous. Presence of the cestode could be the consequence of anthropogenic expansion into natural habitats of this host, as this parasite has only previously been reported in domestic hosts in Brazil.

Professor Alan Turner Specialist in Miocene-Pleistocene Carnivora , particularly Felidae and Hyaenidae and their palaeoecology. He never forgot this early training and was fascinated by how things worked - always happy to take something apart and fix it although his attempt to close a large plate glass window with a geological hammer was not one of his successes.

Following a few years as an engineer, he went to Sheffield University to study archaeology as a mature student in At this time Sheffield was a hotbed of prehistory with Graeme Barker, Robin Dennell and many others contributing to a truly research-led degree with tutorials in the pub well, it was the s Fig. Alan's interest in bones developed at this time, and having graduated in he went on to take a PhD, supervised by Robin Dennell, on "Aspects of the palaeoecology of large predators, including man, during the British Upper Pleistocene, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships" which resulted in a life-long interest in the Carnivora and particularly hyaenas.

Following his PhD, Alan moved to the Environmental Archaeology Unit at York to undertake a Science Research Council project on the morphometrics of domestic cattle and pigs from Coppergate and other major urban excavations in the city. Faced with a lot of measurements and statistics, Alan retained his interest in the animals themselves. The project also confirmed to Alan that prehistory was his metier, rather than the historic periods.

Former York colleagues still fondly recall Alan's dry wit, and the day that he successfully put the irritating lab telephone beyond use with no externally visible trace of damage. Full Text Available Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype ACK. However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families Odobenidae and Otariidae is noticeably missing.

We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family, near threatened Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae and the endemic Baikal seal Pusa sibirica, Phocidae using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes.

The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements less then one rearrangement per 10 million years.

We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. Neotropical puma Puma concolor diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America.

This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for. Serological surveillance on South American wild canids for Neospora caninum. Anticorpos para N. Serological survey for Leishmania sp.

Full Text Available Leishmania sp. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous , Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test DAT using Leishmania Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 Se adicionaron 18 nuevos registros de G.

The Lesser Grison, Galictis cuja, is a species widely distributed in extra-Andean Patagonia, although its records are scarce. This work was carried out in Chubut province, Central Patagonia, Argentina. Here we report new occurrence localities of G. We added 18 new records of G.

We detected a conflict between the rural residents and the Lesser Grison, which motivates the hunting of the latter. There was an apparent increase in abundance of G. The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains specimens bearing names of species-group taxa of Carnivora , Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea as of May This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprising holotypes; 16 lectotypes, two of which are newly designated herein; 7 syntypes 15 specimens ; and 1 neotype.

Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections and therefore are not in the database. Thirty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Arthur J. Poole and Viola S. Orders and families are arranged systematically following D. Wilson and D. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon, type designation, U.

National Museum catalog number s , preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record. An addendum. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park. Full Text Available Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health.

Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8. Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research. As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases.

Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. Results indicated common infection in wild animals.

The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora. Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly.

We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole.

However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil. Leishmania sp. This report describes five cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian canids.

Among 15 animals kept in captivity in a zoo in Belo Horizonte State of Minas Gerais, Brazil , two animals, a bush dog Spheotos venaticos and a hoary zorro Lycalopex vetulus were serologically positive and developed clinical signs of VL, whereas three other canids, including a crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous , a maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus , and a hoary zorro Lycalopex vetulus had positive serological results without clinical signs.

Transferability of short tandem repeat markers for two wild Canid species inhabiting the Brazilian Cerrado. The maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous are two wild-canid species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. We tested cross-amplification and transferability of 29 short tandem repeat primers originally developed for cattle and domestic dogs and cats on 38 individuals of each of these two species, collected in the Emas National Park, which is the largest national park in the Cerrado region.

Genetic parameter values number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosities, and fixation indices were within the expected range reported for canid populations worldwide. A total of immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species.

Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa. From June to June , a total of ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma 7 species , Boophilus 1 and Anocentor 1.

This note describes infection by Leishmania Leishmania infantum chagasi among wild canids kept in captivity in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species 9 was found in the red fox Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

Comparative macroanatomical study of the neurocranium in some carnivora. This study was carried out to investigate the specific anatomical features of the neurocranium of the skull of the dog, cat, badger, marten and otter. Twenty-five animals five from each species were used without sexual distinction. The neurocranium consists of os occipitale, os sphenoidale, os pterygoideum, os ethmoidale, vomer, os temporale, os parietale and os frontale. The processus paracondylaris is projected ventrally in the cat, dog, marten and badger, and caudally in the otter.

Two foramina were found laterally on each side of the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the otter, and one foramen was found near the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the badger. Foramen was not seen in other species. Paired ossa parietalia joined each other at the midline, forming the sutura sagittalis in the badger, dog, otter and cat while it was separated by the linea temporalis in the marten.

The os frontale was small in otters, narrow and long in martens, and quite wide in cats and dogs. The bulla tympanica was rounded in the marten, dog, cat and badger, dorsoventral compressed in otter, and it was very large in all species examined. These observations represented interspecies differences in the neurocranium of marten, otter, badger, cat and dog.

Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Hemigalinae civets Mammalia, Carnivora. Full Text Available Due to the difficulty in obtaining samples, the systematics of the Hemigalinae civets has not been fully resolved. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships of the species and the intraspecific diversity within this subfamily, and to explore the environmental factors that might have affected its evolution.

Within the banded civet, we observed a high divergence between individuals from the Mentawai Islands and those from Sumatra and Borneo while the latter two were not strongly divergent, likely due to the deep sea channel between the Mentawai Islands and Sumatra. Unexpectedly, the Sumatran and Peninsular Malaysian individuals were not closely related, despite the fact that these two regions have repeatedly been connected during the last glaciations.

A new servaline genet Carnivora , Viverridae from Zanzibar Island. Sep 23, Department of Biological Science, University of Swaziland,. Private Bag Efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores Mammalia in a disturbed area of Southeastern Brazil.

Full Text Available Capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. The use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores 5. Dead bait significantly attracted more non-carnivores than carnivores and live bait was more efficient for capturing carnivores 2. Both box and leg-hold traps caused some minor injuries swelling and claw loss. We provide recommendations for the ethical use of these trap and bait types.

Epub March. Geoffroyi, , Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, , Nasua nasua Linnaeus, , Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, , Eira barbara Linnaeus, , and Galictis cuja Molina, , utilizando carnadas vivas y muertas. Roads represent an old and constant cause of accidental death of wildlife. For each road-killed animal we wrote down the species and location along the road. Tamandua tetradactyla, Cerdocyon thous and Myrmecophaga tridactyla were, in decreasing order, the species with the largest number of road-killed individuals.

Among mammals, the number of road-killed individuals was not related to species weight. The number of species and road-killed animals was constant throughout the 17 months of the research. The average frequency of animal roadkills in the dry season April to September is slightly higher than the frequency in the rainy season October to March.

The average frequency of species victim to accidents, however, is constant throughout the dry and rainy seasons. The incidence of species and individuals of road-killed animals per 10 km was not influenced by the number of forest fragments along the sides of the road. We suggest that speed reducers could decrease the number of animals killed on the road. Roadkill of wild vertebrates along GO, Brazil. Among mammals, the number of road-killed individuals was not related to species.

Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. Between August and March , 31 coatis Nasua nasua , 78 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous , seven ocelots Leopardus pardalis , 42 dogs Canis lupus familiaris , wild rodents 77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps , 30 marsupials 14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris , and ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated.

Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores C. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals.

Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles. Re-emergence of rabies virus maintained by canid populations in Paraguay. Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since , and the last case in dogs, reported in , was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In , a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted.

Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" Cerdocyon thous. A second sample from a dog positive for rabies in the same region in and 11 samples from a rabies outbreak from Asuncion in were also characterized.

The antigenic profile of the samples, AgV2, was compatible with one of the variants maintained by dogs in Latin America. In genetic characterization, the samples segregated in the canine domestic and wild species -related group in an independent subgroup that also included samples from Argentina. These results and the epidemiology of the case indicate that even with the control of rabies in domestic animals, the virus can still circulate in wildlife and may be transmitted to domestic animals and humans, demonstrating the importance of continuous and improved surveillance and control of rabies, including in wild species, to prevent outbreaks in controlled areas.

Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. Serum samples were collected from wild carnivores, including the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus , crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous , hoary fox Pseudalopex vetulus , puma Puma concolor , ocelot Leopardus pardalis , pampas cat Leopardus colocolo , jaguarundi Herpailurus yagouaroundi , striped hog-nosed skunk Conepatus semistriatus and coati Nasua nasua , and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP.

Serological tests showed that This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves Canis lupus. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. Species morphological changes can be mutually influenced by environmental or biotic factors, such as competition.

South American canids represent a quite recent radiation of taxa that evolved forms very disparate in phenotype, ecology and behaviour. Today, in the central part of South America there is one dominant large species the maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus that directly influence sympatric smaller taxa via interspecific killing. Further south, three species of similar sized foxes Lycalopex spp.

Such unique combination of taxa and geographic distribution makes South American dogs an ideal group to test for the simultaneous impact of climate and competition on phenotypic variation. Using geometric morphometrics, we quantified skull size and shape of specimens belonging to the eight extant South American canid species: Atelocynus microtis , Cerdocyon thous , Ch.

South American canids are significantly different in both skull size and shape. The hypercarnivorous bush dog is mostly distinct in shape from all the other taxa while a degree of overlap in shape-but not size-occurs between species of the genus Lycalopex.

Both climate and competition impacts interspecific morphological variation. We identified climatic adaptations as the main driving force of diversification for the South American canids. Competition has a lower degree of impact on their skull morphology although it might have played a role in the past, when canid community was richer in morphotypes.

Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests.

Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. Chromosomal evolution of the Canidae. Species with high diploid numbers. The Giemsa banding patterns of seven canid species, including the grey wolf Canis lupus , the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus , the bush dog Speothos venaticus , the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous , the grey fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus , the bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis , and the fennec Fennecus zerda , are presented and compared.

Relative to other members of Canidae, these species have high diploid complements 2n greater than 64 consisting of largely acrocentric chromosomes. They show a considerable degree of chromosome homoeology, but relative to the grey wolf, each species is either missing chromosomes or has unique chromosomal additions and rearrangements.

Differences in chromosome morphology among the seven species were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic history. The results suggest that the South American canids are closely related to each other and are derived from a wolf-like progenitor. The fennec and the bat-eared fox seem to be recent derivatives of a lineage that branched early from the wolf-like canids and which also includes the grey fox.

Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil. Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation.

Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories e. We registered records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris 30 records and Cerdocyon thous 28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity.

The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous , Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. It can be a silent friend who listens to your ideas.

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